All posts by Rajesh Babu Rajendran

Durbin Interchange Amendment Summary

The DURBIN amendment would bring regulation to the $20 billion per year debit interchange fee system.
The card issuing bank in a debit card transaction receives  interchange fees.
However, Visa and MasterCard set the debit interchange fee rates that apply to all banks within their networks.
Every bank gets the same interchange fee rate, regardless of how efficiently a bank conducts debit transactions.

git quick introduction

Git is distributed version control system, based on the concept of file system.

git init – Init of the new repository at the current directory.

git add <files> – Adds the files to the index/staging area.

git checkout — <file> – Removes the file from the index/staging area

git commit – Commits the change to repository.

git diff – diff report of the files between current working file and staging file / committed file.

git log – report of all the changes to the repository.

git reset HEAD <file> – Remove the file from index.

git remote -v – Working with the remote repository. Lists all the remote repositories.

git remote add origin – Adds the remote repository as origin.

git push -u origin – Push the changes to the remote repository.

git branch <branch-name> Create an branch

git checkout <branch-name> Switch to the branch

git merge <branch-name> merge the branch with the master


SSL Certificate Container formats

Sourced from


  • .csr This is a Certificate Signing Request. Some applications can generate these for submission to certificate-authorities. The actual format is PKCS10 which is defined in RFC 2986. It includes some/all of the key details of the requested certificate such as subject, organization, state, whatnot, as well as the public key of the certificate to get signed. These get signed by the CA and a certificate is returned. The returned certificate is the public certificate (which includes the public key but not the private key), which itself can be in a couple of formats.
  • .pem   Defined in RFC’s 1421 through 1424, this is a container format that may include just the public certificate (such as with Apache installs, and CA certificate files /etc/ssl/certs), or may include an entire certificate chain including public key, private key, and root certificates. Confusingly, it may also encode a CSR (e.g. as used here) as the PKCS10 format can be translated into PEM. The name is from Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM), a failed method for secure email but the container format it used lives on, and is a base64 translation of the x509 ASN.1 keys.
  • .key This is a PEM formatted file containing just the private-key of a specific certificate and is merely a conventional name and not a standardized one. In Apache installs, this frequently resides in /etc/ssl/private. The rights on these files are very important, and some programs will refuse to load these certificates if they are set wrong.
  • .pkcs12 .pfx .p12 Originally defined by RSA in the Public-Key Cryptography Standards, the “12” variant was enhanced by Microsoft. This is a passworded container format that contains both public and private certificate pairs. Unlike .pem files, this container is fully encrypted. Openssl can turn this into a .pem file with both public and private keys: openssl pkcs12 -in file-to-convert.p12 -out converted-file.pem -nodes



8 Shortest Stories with beautiful meaning

(1) Those who had coins, enjoyed in the rain.
Those who had notes, were busy looking for shelter.

(2) Man and God both met somewhere,
Both exclaimed …
“My creator”

(3) He asked are you-“Hindu or Muslim”
Response came- I am hungry

(4) The fool didn’t know it was impossible. …
So he did it.

(5) “Wrong number”, Said a familiar voice.

(6) What if, God asks you after you die ….
“So how was heaven??”

(7) “They told me that to make her fall in love I had to make her laugh.
But every time she laughs, I am the one who falls in love.”

(8) We don’t make friends anymore, We Add them.

Safety tips for Woman

1. What should a woman do if she finds herself alone in the company of a strange male as she prepares to enter a lift in a High Rise apartment late at night?

Experts Say: Enter the lift. If you need to reach the 13th floor, press all the buttons up to your destination. No one will dare attack you in a lift that stops on every floor.

2. What to do if a stranger tries to attack you when you are alone in your house, run into the kitchen.

Experts Say: You alone know where the chili powder and turmeric are kept. And where the knives and plates are. All these can be turned into deadly weapons. If nothing else, start throwing plates and utensils all over. Let them break. Scream. Remember that noise is the greatest enemy of a molester. He does not want to be caught.

3. Taking an Auto or Taxi at Night.

Experts Say: Before getting into an auto at night, note down its registration number. Then use the mobile to call your family or friend and pass on the details to them in the language the driver understands. Even if no one answers your call, pretend you are in a conversation. The driver now knows someone has his details and he will be in serious trouble if anything goes wrong. He is now bound to take you home safe and sound. A potential attacker is now your de facto protector.

4. What if the driver turns into a street he is not supposed too and you feel you are entering a danger zone?
Experts Say: Use the handle of your purse or your stole (dupatta) to wrap around his neck and pull him back. Within seconds, he will feel choked and helpless. In case you don’t have a purse or stole just pull him back by his collar. The top button of his shirt would then do the same trick.

5. If you are stalked at night.

Expert Say: enter a shop or a house and explain your predicament. If it is night and shops are not open, go inside an ATM box. ATM centers always have close circuit television. Fearing identification, no one will dare attack you.

After all, being mentally alert is the greatest weapon you can ever have.